I used the upgrade manager to upgrade from 17.04 to 17.10. When I start the machine, I only get a black flickering screen now. I was using the nvidia binary drivers before the upgrade.
NOTE: This question (and answer) relate to a specific issue when upgrading from 17.04 to 17.10 while using Nvidia or AMD binary drivers. You might experience a completely different issue. For that please see the more general question My computer boots to a black screen, what options do I have to fix it?.