From that last screenshot it looks like your disk is dying.
Adding 1558 bad clusters to Bad Clusters File is something to seriously worry about.
Considering the last message
failed to transfer logged messages to the event log with status 50, it can mean several things. But the bad clusters are probably the cause.
I think your MFT is corrupt and maybe some other parts too.
In the past I had the same kind of issue with an external harddrive.
I executed the following command line
chkdsk /F X: (where X is the drive letter) about 120 times before it was fixed completely and I only lost 4 files (instead of 1.2 million). This may sound pretty weird but not trying is getting you nowhere either. And since you have bad clusters you might also want to try
chkdsk /R X: or
chkdsk /B X:.
Moreover to prevent more data loss buy a new drive, and when plugging it out, use the 'eject' option, it is there for a reason. People who say that function is useless were lucky enough to not experience data corruption (yet).
This question is a little similar to something I have answered before. In my experience, if you have a computer with a COA sticker on the bottom, you can activate that key for the version of Windows that it's for on that computer as many times as you want. If you don't have a Windows installation disc for that specific version of windows, you can search the internet for an ISO image and burn a copy if you have to perform a clean install.
I always try to get an ISO file from a Windows source such as This first. If that for some reason doesn't work you can always try sources other than Microsoft such as This. If you try this link, please make sure to watch carefully when you are downloading. I had to create a quick and free account, and also there is a box that you need to uncheck that ask to download with a manager.
Just please read and look at all comments about the site you are downloading from. As a last resort you can also try to search a torrent site for a non activated copy. Make sure that it is a legal copy of Windows and does not say ANYTHING about pre-activated or cracked copy or anything similar. You want a copy that you have to activate.
After you have your ISO image file you can use a program such as Free ISO Burner to burn the image file to a DVD. The image file should already be bootable so you shouldn't have to mess with boot settings.
After you create your installation disc, you can then install windows. Use the COA key on the sticker to activate windows. When the install is finished you may still have to go into the activation wizard and complete a phone activation. The instructions to activate can be found here.
After you have everything activated and it shows that it is a genuine copy, you can then go to install updates. These will take forever, but you need to update.
That is pretty much it. I do not condone using illegal Keygens or hacks to activate windows so please make sure you try a Microsoft source first and make sure that it's a copy that you have to activate. The key is what makes the copy of Windows legal or illegal. You always want to have a good, safe, and legal installation of Windows.
PS. I just tried the method with downloading the ISO from the second source and tested it, and it works. The only other thing to note is that if you are using Free ISO Burner, make sure to check finalize disc. See below.
Try this: Step-By-Step: Partition Your Hard Drive | PCWorld
This should give the step by step instructions you need.
For a specific Windows 8 one try this: Windows 8 disk management: extend, shrink, resize volume
Here are the steps as layed out on first link:
Check, optimize, and back up your drive(s) First, select Start, Programs, Accessories, System Tools, ScanDisk, click Thorough, and check the Automatically fix errors box. Then click Start.
Next, defragment each drive by selecting Start, Programs, Accessories, System Tools, Disk Defragmenter.
To use Windows 9 x's or Me's built-in backup utility, select Start, Programs, Accessories, System Tools, Backup and follow the directions. (If the utility isn't there, then for Windows 9 x, check Start, Settings, Control Panel, Add/Remove Programs, Windows Setup, Accessories, and for Windows Me, run Msbexp.exe from the Addons/MSBackup folder on the Me CD.) In Windows XP Professional, select Start, Control Panel, Performance and Maintenance, Back up your data.
Plan for partitions Before you run the partitioning software, decide how you want to organize your hard drive(s). Consider the size of the drive, whether you want to simply segregate data from the operating system and applications or create a more complex structure, and whether you want to run more than one OS. Read your partitioning software's manual for suggestions. Major partitioning utilities also have wizards that lead you through the process.
Run the software Once you've decided how to set up your partitions, follow the directions to install and run the partitioning software. Although the software won't let you make incorrect choices, you should check and double-check the new partitions to make sure you've allocated all the drive's space. Creating and moving partitions may take 30 minutes or more, depending on how full your drive is. The software will also format the new partitions for you.
Reboot and reorganize Once the partitions are created, reboot your PC to complete the process. You can then move your data around or install a new operating system. If you plan to store all your data in one of the new partitions, you'll have to tell your applications where to save files in the future. Usually, you can set this from the Preferences menu or File Locations tab in each application.
Problems? If you have problems accessing or using the new partitions, use the emergency disks that came with the partitioning software to double-check that the partitions were created and formatted. If they still don't work, then it's time to contact tech support.