iCloud syncs Safari bookmarks as well as Keychain passwords across your Macs and iOS device today. Simply sign into iCloud on your Macs, and configure both "Safari" and "Keychain" in iCloud settings in System Settings. If you are having trouble getting this to work, check here: http://support.apple.com/kb/TS4001
In my experience, iCloud is not as quick, nor as persistent as is Google Sync. It can often take many minutes to get updates, and sometimes it seems to fail outright. This has been improving for sometime now, but IMHO, its not as good as Google.
Alternatives include Xmarks and LastPass. XMarks syncs bookmarks across everything, whether you use Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Mac or Windows. Highly recommended. The Safari support is a little odd, due to Safari not having a similar plugin capability. Lastpass manages passwords for websites, recommended as well.
For your use case, of syncing across Chrome and Safari, ipad, etc: XMarks doesn't work on iPad Safari. You can use Chrome on iPad, and get your bookmarks synced from Chrome, but this doesnt work for Safari. To get Safari to share the same bookmarks:
- On your Mac, Install XMarks for Chrome
- Create XMarks account, and sync your
- Install XMarks for Safari on Mac
- Sign into your account, and
allow XMarks to overwrite your Safari bookmarks
- Make sure iCloud is
syncing Safari Bookmarks
- Ipad/iPhone Safari will now contain same
bookmarks as Chrome.
Tyler Brook, the article you link as a solution is for a computer type of device and not an iPhone or mobile version of the browser. The mobile version has a more limited menu. I have the same question and am hitting the same wall. So far I have to email my self links to get the open pages to a non-mobile device(with a bigger screen for my old eyes ).
The iOS 13 update is testing a new function to do exactly what you seek.